This Dark Age

A manual for life in the modern world.

By Daniel Schwindt

This Dark Age is now available in paperback on Amazon. The print version is MUCH cleaner than this online version, which is largely unedited and has fallen by the wayside as the project has grown. If you’ve appreciated my writing, please consider leaving a review on the relevant paperback volumes. The print edition also includes new sections (Military History, War Psychology, Dogmatic Theology).

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Nyaya argument and the five avayavas

The padartha called avayava deals with the complete form of a demonstrative argument and can also be called nyaya, but in a secondary sense, since argument is central to its method.  Nyaya demonstration contains five avayavas or terms, hence the name normally applied to the padartha, and these five terms are as follows: pratijna, the promise, or the proposition to be proven; hetu, the proof, or the reason justifying the proposition; udaharana, the example cited in support of the reason, serving as an illustration, usually well-known; upanaya, the application of the proof to the case in question; nigamana, the conclusion or result, which affirms the proposition as proven above. The five terms listed may sometimes be given in abridged form, including only the first or last three, and and in the case of the latter there is a likeness to that of Aristotelian syllogism. In nyaya the greater and lesser terms are called vyapaka (container) and vyapya (content), respectively. Hetu serves the purpose of the intermediate term.

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