This Dark Age

A manual for life in the modern world.

By Daniel Schwindt

This Dark Age is now available in paperback on Amazon. The print version is MUCH cleaner than this online version, which is largely unedited and has fallen by the wayside as the project has grown. If you’ve appreciated my writing, please consider leaving a review on the relevant paperback volumes. The print edition also includes new sections (Military History, War Psychology, Dogmatic Theology).

Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3| Volume 4 | Volume 5 | Volume 6

Subdivisions of dravya

Like other padarthas, dravya consists of subdivisions, and these describe the modalities and general conditions of individual substances. If we mention these and not others, it is because these will come up again elsewhere in our discussion. For example, within these subdivisions are found the five bhutas or elements that make up corporeal things: prithvi (earth), ap (water), tejas (fire), vayu (air), and akasha (ether). The reader will recall what was said earlier, that these are listed in this order for a reason, due to the point of view we are dealing with, and that they will be reversed when we adopt the point of view of Sankhya. The five elements are manifest through the five sensible qualities, and these are found within the second category, guna. Additionally, dravya contains kala (time) and dish (space), which are general conditions of corporeal existence, and they represent in manifestation the activity of Shiva and Vishnu. The seven subdivisions of dravya which have been listed so far (the five elements, time, and space) pertain to corporeal manifestation only, but it is true that an individual being, if considered as a whole and beyond its bodily modality, elements belonging to another order, and these are represented by the final subdivisions of dravya: atma and manas. Manas is ‘mind,’ in the sense of the whole of the psychic faculties that belong to the individual. Of these it is reason that characterizes man. Atma, which should really not be translated as ‘soul,’ as is sometimes done, refers the principle of a more universal order to which the individuality is attached. It is here that the pure intellect is found. Atma can be distinguished from manas in the same way that personality is distinguished from individuality.

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